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Saturday, August 13, 2016

19th World Guppy Contest (WGC), Vienna Austria

19th World Guppy Contest (WGC), Vienna Austria
August 22-28, 2016

© Alan S. Bias
Permission granted for nonprofit reproduction or duplication of photos and text with proper credit for learning purposes only.
August 12, 2016
Metallic Blond Bunt Lowersword, bred by Alan S.Bias

Do you breed and maintain Guppies to any set standard found around the world?  If so, you should consider the opportunity that exists this month in Vienna, Austria.  As a breeder you have the chance not only to exhibit your strain, but also introduce yourself and in turn promote your breeding program at a true world level.  In doing so, you will find a place for strains that commonly fit into accepted classes in North America, and those that don’t.

The 19th World Guppy Contest (WGC) is a show that goes beyond local, state, regional and national level competition.  It makes a sincere attempt to encompass set standards found among established Domestic Guppy breeding associations worldwide.  WGC shows are geared to accept an array of Guppy color, pattern, and finnage phenotypes.   

WGC shows, sponsored under the auspices of the World Guppy Association (WGA) traditionally occur only once a year.  The WGA relies upon the volunteer efforts of a governing board comprised of elected officers, delegates, host clubs, judges and most importantly breeders from around the World for support in this annual event.

1996: 01. WGC, Osaka/Japan
1997: 02. WGC, Nuremberg/Germany
1998: 03. WGC, Milwaukee/USA
1999: 04. WGC, Rio de Janeiro/Brasil
2000: 05. WGC, Vienna/Austria
2001: 06. WGC, Prague/Czech
2002: 07. WGC, Nuremberg/Germany
2003: 08. WGC, Santos/Brasil
2004: 09. WGC, Milwaukee/USA
2005: 10. WGC, Taipei/Taiwan
2006: 11. WGC, Prague/Czech
2007: 12. WGC, Brasilia/Brazil
2009: 13. WGC, Ferrara/Italy
2010: 14. WGC, Belo Horizonte/Brazil
2011: 15. WGC, Boston/USA
2012: - No Show
2013: 16. WGC, Kuala Lumpur/Malaysia
2014: 17. WGC, Tianjin/China
2015: 18. WGC, Tampa/USA
2016:  19. WGC, Vienna Austria

IFGA Green Delta

In the early 1970’s as a young Guppy breeder one of my favorite publications was Portrait Of The Guppy (1967), By Larry Konig.  I have read this publication many times over since that time, and occasionally pull it out, though these days in digital .pdf format, for a quick glance.

From this publication I was made aware of the early diversity in Guppy phenotypes, emerging genetic knowledge, and more importantly the existence of clubs at the local and national level.  Though living in a remote region, by US standards, it would be a number of years before I became associated with the International Fancy Guppy Association (IFGA), successor to the American Guppy Association (AGA).  Starting in the late 1950’s members of the AGA put together initial standards for showing Guppies.  From which, the IFGA, later expanded upon and periodically updates into current North American standards.

Of all the topics covered in Konig’s publication, several comments in his final page of review have stood out in my mind through the years.

First, he made a comment, “not everyone who has been successful is willing to help his or her fellow hobbyist.  That is human nature and we’ll just have to grin and bear it.”

Second, “it is no crime to be stumped by a question, but it is very unfair to pass along improper information.”

Third, “this is a wonderful hobby, especially when shared with our friends.  But the easiest way to lose friends, and for the Society to lose members, is by misinformation.  It leads to a loss of interest by the affected persons.” [emphasis added].

Forth, “we are doing better each year, due to the fact that more and more people are breeding and experimenting with stock from the best breeding strains available, and are often willing to share their good results with fellow hobbyists.” [emphasis added].

Entry of your stocks in WGC competitions not only garners recognition of your  breeding efforts, it offers breeders around the world an opportunity to continue and expand upon your results.  At the completion of judging entries are auctioned or sold to attending breeders with a common interest.

Are you open minded and agreeable to accept results based on diverse standards and opinions of a group of knowledgeable breeder judges?  Then help promote Guppy breeding within the constraints of an ever growing worldwide community of breeders, by considering the opportunity this show presents.  Show your support as an independent North American or IFGA breeder by sending some entries to this truly unique and worldwide event.
There are no entry fees for entry in the 19th WGC being held in Vienna, Austria from August 22-28, 2016.  If you are interested in entering several of your fish that best exemplify  breeding results, you may contact Frank Chang, Simeon Bonev or myself, Alan S. Bias.  We will personally handle cost, transport and entry through Austrian Customs of your fish to Vienna.

But, you must make arrangements quickly and ship to one of us by the end of next week.  All three of us may be contacted via Facebook messaging to make needed arrangements.

Grey Purple Body Mutation Lowersword, bred by Alan S.Bias
Grey Asian Blau Purple Body Mutation Lowersword, bred by Alan S.Bias

General Show Information -

References:  Portrait Of The Guppy (1967), By Larry Konig.  E.G. Publishing Co., P.O. Box 294, Eliabeth, NJ, USA  07207.


Don't forget the final show of the IFGA show season hosted
by Deep South Fancy Guppy Associates.  Mufreesboro, TN.  August 20-21, 2016.


Thursday, July 28, 2016

Berkeley Springs, West Virginia Feral Guppies

Berkeley Springs Wild-Type Males

© Alan S. Bias – July 28, 2016
Permission granted for nonprofit reproduction or duplication of photos and text in entirety with proper credit for learning purposes only.
NOTE:  All photos by author.

When it comes to collecting feral populations of Poecilia reticulata in North America, West Virginia is not one of the first places that come to mind. While many Guppy enthusiasts are aware of Florida feral ditch populations derived commercial farm escapees, few realize that self-sustaining populations exist in thermal spring environments throughout the United States.  Conditions in each of these thermal locations can be rather harsh for a species evolved in a tropical setting.  Overall, size of habitable range is normally limited by temperature extremes, predation, and water chemistry.

Most of these sites have reliable sources suggesting initial dates of introduction ranging from the late 1940's - 1960's.   In general, it is believed populations derive from aquarium based stocks and not wild-caught individuals.  Based on this knowledge, it is safe to assume that foundation stocks consisted of Wild-type, Short-tails, Swordtails and early Veil tails bred in aquariums.

Berkeley Springs Wild-Type Male
In some locations habitation is limited to pools near thermal discharge at the springs source, or just below when water is cooled to maximum survivable temperatures.  In others habitation will extend downstream to a point where minimum survivable temperature are no longer maintained during winter extremes.  Fish that disperse or are born below this point will perish in winter.

Just as temperature restricts these feral populations, so does predation.  In some sites predation consists of local native species of fish, birds and insects, while in others it may include a host of introduced South American, Central American and African Cichlids.  Often various species of Mollies, Platys, Gambusia are also to be found.  The presence of Gambusia in itself will greatly restrict Guppy population levels.

Many thermal springs have one thing in common, that being extremes in chemical composition of output water.  Often water is very hard with high Ph levels.  To include high concentrations of minerals not typically found in South and Central American waters.  While introduced Guppy populations survive, they may do so under great duress.

A few states that come to mind with thriving thermal populations of Guppies are Nevada, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Texas, Connecticut, Colorado, Wisconsin and West Virginia.  Yes, West Virginia has a thriving population of feral Guppies at Berkeley Springs State Park in Morgan County.  For further location info and photos: or

Berkeley Springs is typical of many cold or hot springs found in West Virginia.  It is considered a "Silica-rock" spring system.  As opposed to being fed by an underground aquifer, surface water percolates through Oriskany Sandstone formations before returning to the surface.  Unlike many thermal springs arising in decomposed granite or limestone country, those fed through Silica contain very low levels of dissolved solids.  Yet, Berkeley Springs water is very highly mineralized.

The exact heat source for Berkeley Springs has never been completely identified.  Water exits the spring at a temperature of 74.3*F.  Compared to most geothermal springs this is rather "lukewarm".  An average of 1200 gallons per minute flows from the spring year round, and varies with seasonal discharge estimates as high as 2000 gallons per minute.  Water leaving the spring stream flows immediately into Warm Spring Run.   The year round Feral Guppy population is limited to this short section of spring stream.  Warm Spring Run in turn flows into the Potomac River after a journey of about six miles.

Best estimates for establishment of the Berkeley Springs Feral Guppy population sets the date just after World War II, in the mid 1940's, based on early observations of park staff and visitors.   This is quite a bit earlier than documented thermal spring stockings in Western States. However, does not rule out later subsequent introductions.  While the presence of Guppies at an earlier date is feasible, populations would have been destroyed or decimated by a series of catastrophic floods, between 1936-9, which inundated the spring and spring stream.  A flood control project initiated between 1955-61 has eliminated much seasonal flooding of the spring stream inhabited by Guppies.  Yet, periodic flooding of the park and spring stream still occurs.  No doubt, drastically reducing Guppy populations.

Berkeley Springs Guppies

Being a "warm water" stream, and based on migration studies by researchers, it is feasible that Guppies could traverse downstream into Warm Spring Run.  Either by natural dispersal or during prior referenced warm weather flooding.   Numbers would be small and heavily preyed upon.  As you exit the spring stream and move downstream predation by native species would increase.  Some commonly found predators would include Stonefly, Caddisfly, Water Beetles, Crayfish, Sunfish, Bass, Catfish, Pickerel, Shiners, Suckers, and Bullhead Catfish.  With the return of cold weather, dispersed individuals would perish.

Today, the springs and discharge stream little resemble that of former times.  The stream is heavily channelized with rock retaining walls, paved walking trails, and small bridges.  Water depth is rather consistent, to seasonal flow, within the stream bed itself.  Most variation is in the form of deeper pools that form underneath bridges.

As with other thermal stockings, assumptions can be made based on the time of stocking. Founding members of the Berkeley Springs Guppy population would have likely been of wild-type, swordtail, and possible early Veil tail available in the 1940's.  Guppies are found the entire length of the spring stream in great numbers.  Some variation in both body type and age structure can be found in the upper and lower portions of the stream, and deeper pools.  Younger fish and fry are commonly found hiding in plant growth along the stream bank.  Middle ages fish the length of the stream. Older fish residing in deeper pools.

Today clear roundtails, doubleswords, topswords, lyretail, Wingean wild-type finnage and ragged veil types can be found. Females for the most part all appear color / tail neutral or express Flavis (Fla). With notable exceptions being expression of topsword and occasional single dark melanophore spot in caudal.

Flavis (Fla) Female
Metal Gold (Mg) Female with Black Caudal Spot

As a result of high flow rate of the spring stream, both sexes are much longer and more streamlined than would be expected in a "typical" feral population. While predominantly wild-type grey body, a portion of the population is blond (b).  Initial observations of collected fish suggest predation has an effect on overall age, thus size, of blond specimen's as compared to grey body fish.
Blond Lyre-tail Male

Both sexes can express Metal Gold (Mg) in heterozygous and homozygous states.  As in many wild or feral Guppy populations Purple Body Mutation (Pb) is prevalent.  Expression of yellow in finnage & body from Pauper (Pa) / Cinnamomeus (Ci) traits is also common.  The latter not commonly found in modern domestic or feral populations, thus indicative of an early stocking date.

Males expressing Pauper (Pa)/Cinnamomeus (Ci)

Overall, reflective qualities of the population are not what I would describe as "vibrant."  Still, iridescence is to be found in many males.  As in this highly reflective reticulata male who clearly exhibits a "reflective dorsal spot".   This is another marker for potential verification of a very early stocking date.  For further reading on the origins of iridescence in modern Domestic Guppies:

Iridescent Male with Reflective Dorsal Spot

As Guppies are a non-endemic species collection of them at Berkeley Springs is not discouraged.  In fact, children wading with nets are not only a common sight, but also one of the top predators.  So get there early in the morning if you are a serious collector.  As a result of all the human traffic this population exhibits a very high "fright or flight" response to movement from above, and will readily jump out of the water.  So covered tanks &/or reduced water levels are recommended.

On a final note, I would like to mention this population also appears to suffer from a higher level of parasitic worm infestation than most.  Possibly as a result of duress from less than optimal environmental conditions or maximum summer population levels?  While I have not yet put any under the microscope, be prepared to cull your collection when you arrive home and medicate those retained accordingly.

It should be noted that several other introduced species have been reported at Berkeley Springs, to include Plecostomus and Zebra Danio.

Many thanks to my friend, and fellow collector / breeder Tom Coggins (Missouri) for this recent collection.  Tom arrived at Berkeley Springs Park at 5:30 a.m.  after leaving New Jersey at 2:00 a.m. to collect for me.  Arriving at my Southern WV home around 2:00 p.m. with a bucket full to select from.  Tom will be collecting feral Guppies this summer from both McCauley & Rogers Springs, Nevada.  It will be interesting to see his results.
Courtenay, W. R., Jr., C. R. Robins, R. M. Bailey, and J.E.Deacon. 1987. Records of exotic fishes from Idaho and Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist 47(4):523-546.

Courtenay, W. R., Jr., and J.E.Deacon. 1983.Fish introductions in the American southwest: a case history of Rogers Spring, Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 28:221-224.

Deacon, J.E., C.Hubbs, and B. J.Zaburanec.1964.Some effects of introduced fishes on the native fish fauna of southern Nevada.Copeia 1964(2):384-388.

Donovan, J.J., et al. (2006) Springs, source water areas, and potential for high-yield aquifers along the Cacapon Mountain anticline, Morgan County, WV.  West Virginia University.  Last checked 7.4.16.

Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Ecological Risk Screening Summary (2015). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Last checked 7.4.16

Hobba, W.A. et al. (1979) Hydrology and Geochemistry of the Thermal Springs of the Appalachians.  Geohydrology of Geothermal Systems.  United States Department of the Interior.  Last checked 7.4.16.

Lehman, K (2010) Warm Spring Run Watershed Assessment, Morgan County, WV.  Last checked 7.4.16.

Sunday, June 19, 2016

Has the Robson Guppy truly disappeared?

Has the Robson Guppy truly disappeared?
By Alan S. Bias 6.16.16

© Alan S. Bias - June 16, 2016

Permission granted for nonprofit reproduction or duplication of photos and text in entirety with proper credit for learning purposes only.

Reprinted from:

Robson Guppy drawn from early standard descriptions
based on wild-type color and pattern.

In the year 1937 A. E. Robson of High Gate, London, England introduced to United Kingdom (UK) members of the Guppy Breeder's Society (GBS) a new strain which would become known among Domestic Guppy breeders as the "Robson Guppy". A strain produces a visible phenotype; a grouping of multiple traits. The Robson strain incorporated two unique traits in females at the time. First, the phenotypical structure of the dorsal resembled that of males from other early strains, still bred today, including the Speartail. While the caudal structure resembled that of the Roundtail, also still bred today. The primary noted difference with Roundtail being a long tapering dorsal with extension well into the caudal round, as compared to early and modern Roundtail's which possess a much shorter and rectangular dorsal that does not extend into the caudal round. In example below a Robson type male.

Robson type female with Tapering Dorsal and black finnage.
Photo courtesy Carl Groenewegen

Second, and most importantly, the Robson females expressed color in finnage. While this may seem inconsequential today, the Robson females are documented as being one of the first captive-bred strains to express either sex-link or autosomal linked color in finnage. Albeit, melanophores and not actual color pigment. In example below, a modern Black Moscow female with black finnage and extended non-tapering dorsal.

Robson colored female, with non-tapering extended dorsal.
Photo courtesy Desmond Koh
Robson male from some years ago, photo courtesy of Stephen Elliot

At the time, scientific research involving Poecilia reticulata was still in infancy. Most notable researchers at the time were O. J. Winge, L. J. Blacher, Johs. Schmidt, C. P. & E. F. Haskins, J. P. Druzba, V. F. & A. I. Natali, and V. S. Kirpichnikov, to name a few of the more notable, who were doing studies near exclusively on captive bred wild-caught populations. In wild-type Mother Nature imposes many restrictions which best define "fitness traits" geared towards survival of P. reticulata as a prey species. One of which is "color neutral / clear caudal" females. Above lateral line female coloration is specifically adapted for camouflage from above, and below lateral line female coloration is adapted for camouflage from below. While minimal finnage appears clear to the naked eye and in the shape of a genetic roundtail.

The available published research at the time suggested wild-type females possessed little or no color pigment in genotype (XX-link), thus passed little color or pattern genotype to male offspring. However, when this information was disseminated to breeders by aquatic authors of the day, it mistakenly assumed the same results applied to wild-type results would also apply to domestic strains being developed. As A. E. Robson showed in 1937, this was not the case. His simple strain, by modern standards, proved P. reticulata females were capable of expressing color in captive bred domestic strains, extracted from traits existing unexpressed in wild-type. It would also help corroborate later research showing females were:

1. Capable of naturally possessing color in genotype (XX-link and autosomal),

2. Capable of acquiring color through chromosomal crossover (Y to X-link) during meiosis,

3. Capable of androgen based expression of color pigments.

By the early 1950's researchers were showing in captive bred wild-caught populations what breeders had demonstrated in their tanks fifteen years prior. That being, in native high predation locations much of male color pattern was preserved and passed not by Y-link inheritance, but rather X-link and autosomal. Flashy Y-link males gain benefit via female sexual selection preference in both low and high predation locales. Yet, suffer higher mortality in the latter. Therefore, it is not of benefit for males to pass high degrees of color / pattern and reflective qualities to all sons in the form of Y-link. The stage was set for development of the wide array of Domestic Guppy strains we see world-wide today.

It would be nearly another 10 years before the GBS recognized the Robson phenotype in its breeding standards of 1947. According to Klee, Robson females exhibited, "a large round jet-black tail and a black dorsal." The remainder of body and finnage coloration in Robson females was described as being blue iridophore and yellow Metal Gold (Mg), commonly seen in wild-type. Though possibly more pronounced? Males were described by Klee as, "lacking the black spots characteristic of the common guppy of the time, but they did have their tails and dorsal fins edged in black." It should be noted that more recent Robson type males (tapering dorsal & round caudal) express diversity of type found in color & pattern of modern short-tail strains. While those of earlier breeding’s were likely limited to “wild-type”, “multi” or “Vienna” body color and pattern. In example below, a male of Robson finnage type (tapering dorsal and round caudal) edged in black with modern Saddleback color and pattern.

Robson type male with Saddleback color & pattern.
Photo courtesy Gernot Kaden

While breeder lore indicates creation of the Robson strain involved the use of Cream (double recessive blond (b) + golden (g) females, Klee contradicted this belief, without substantiating, stating Robson infused "imported females that exhibit much black in their fins" into his gene pool.

While Robson Guppies were to be found in continental Europe, its core support came from breeders in the United Kingdom. The UK Federation of Guppy Breeder's Society (FGBS), successor to the GBS, standards defined the Robson in 1955 and 1961 as, "Caudal Fin - To be evenly rounded and free from any resemblance of a straight line or point. Dorsal Fin - To be long, slim, tapering to a point and extending beyond the Caudal peduncle. Standard Grey body only." As such, clearly defined Robson as a body style trait and not in regard to color or pattern. The FGBS was geared towards production of Short-tail Guppies.

The Robson Guppy, 1955 UK Federation of Guppy Breeder's Society standard.

In 1961, UK Fancy Guppy Association (FGA), successor to the FGBS, failed to recognize in its Standards Handbook the Robson Guppy as either a body type or color class. Instead, listed, "FEMALES, ALL VARIETIES, COLOURS on fins should be varied and brilliant. In revised 1967 standards had apparently seen the error in previous interpretation of the Robson phenotype by re-classifying prior standard from that of a "body / finnage type" to a "basic body colour". Which stated, "Robson - Permitted only in the grey standard basic body colour. The dorsal and caudal fins must be black and no other colour on the body or fins is allowed."

However, by doing so had set the course for continued declining interest and eventual demise of this 30 year old phenotype. From foundation to demise the FGA was founded and geared toward production of Broad-tail Guppies. By 1973 the Robson phenotype was no longer included in FGA standards for either color or body.

Asian Black Moscow female of Robson coloration, with tapering dorsal and minimal extension.
Photo courtesy 
曾皇傑 Tseng Huang Chieh
Asian Black Moscow female of Robson coloration, with tapering dorsal and minimal extension.
Photo courtesy 
曾皇傑 Tseng Huang Chieh


So what brought about the demise of the Robson phenotype as a strain recognized by formal Guppy Breeder Associations? As late as 1989, The UK Federation of Northern Aquarium Societies, in its publication, "A Simple Guide to Identification; Guppy (Fin Shapes), listed the Robson Guppy as a body type. The Robson was never formally recognized in North America by the American Guppy Association (AGA) or successor International Fancy Guppy Association (IFGA). Nor, was the Robson ever recognized in continental Europe by the Internationales Kuratorium Guppy Hochzucht (IKGH), active since 1981. From its creation in 1937 until the 1970's the Robson Guppy strain was primarily bred by breeders in the UK.

While the Robson Guppy created quite the stir in its heyday, it could not compete with changing breeder interests and new developments in their tanks. Interest during the 1950-60's was shifting from Swordtails and Short-tails to colorful new Broadtail strains. A standard limiting females to black coloration in finnage and none in body did not help in bolstering dwindling interest. Trying to locate photos of the Robson is like hunting a needle in a hay stack. Few, if any, seem to have been photographed by breeders in tanks or at shows. None of these breeders are active today. To date I have located only a single color plate indicative of a Robson male; see Madsen, J. M., (1975) Aquarium Fishes In Color. In example below, a male of Robson finnage type (tapering dorsal and round caudal) with modern Full Red color and pattern.

Robson type male with Full Red color & pattern.
Photo courtesy Gernot Kaden

Like most modern Domestic Guppy strains the Robson was likely not the result of a "new mutation", rather the product of X-link, Y-link and autosomal traits hidden in wild-type. More often than not these traits are in simple non-linked combination passed by males and females, rather than a true linked complex that is passed to offspring in a single event. They are identified in captive bred population’s subject only to selection imposed by breeders and not natural predation or female sexual selection preferences imposed on wild populations. Large scale mutations are rare and infrequent events, being almost immeasurable. Small scale mutations, on the other hand, are being recognized as frequent and common place. These occur on both the chromosomes and autosomes in the form of transpositions in small snippets of DNA. While producing new phenotypes, this may also foster instability seen in breeder results within “fixed strains.”

In the case of the Robson, it is primarily comprised of X-link &/or autosomal:

1. Concentration of black melanophores in finnage,

2. Tapering dorsal structure with extension.

While modern breeders still commonly associated the term "Robson" with a tapering dorsal in females, it should be remembered for its greatest impact. That being, the first documented expression of color in females as a result of X-link &/or autosomal genotype. This knowledge has allowed for the creation of all expressed female color in modern Domestic Guppy strains. How much as a direct result of Robson females? In all likelihood not that much. In domestic breeding situations it is commonplace for similar phenotypes to arise in multiple locations, just as it is in the wild.

It is feasible Robson genotype for colored finnage in females was used to further develop new strains. If so, most likely candidates are early European black and purple Veiltails. As the genetic foundation of these strains was initially developed in the 1950-60's using females with X-link &/or autosomal black melanophores in finnage. From which later Black strains have been produced, in example below, Asian and North American bred females.

Asian “Midnight Black Moscow Delta with non-tapering dorsal and extension.
Photo courtesy Desmond Koh
Asian Black Moscow female of Robson coloration, with tapering dorsal and no extension.
Photo courtesy Sun Lee
IFGA Black Delta with non-tapering dorsal and extension.
Photo courtesy Bryan Chin

Breeders should always keep in mind that regulation of color and pattern is considered generally distinct between body and finnage. Regulation between caudal and dorsal is often distinct, between strains. As is extension genetics, which allow for variation in lengths of finnage types through breeder selection.

Tapering dorsal is still very much common place in non-black finned Domestic Guppy strains to include: Lyretails, Swordtails, Speartails, Pintails, and even Roundtails. Though, standards worldwide frown on a Rountail tail guppy with a tapering dorsal. Yet, this still serves a purpose. In that it further demonstrates a tapering dorsal and finnage pigmentation was never in a linked complex in the Robson Guppy. Nor, is a tapering dorsal linked in complex to caudal shape, as each can pass independent of the other.

Swordtail female with Tapering Dorsal ca. 2004.
 Photo courtesy 顏威廉 William Yen

Red Double Sword female with Tapering Dorsal.
Photo by Alan S. Bias

Delta female with Tapering Dorsal.
Photo courtesy Carl Groenewegen
Asian X-link Double sword female with Tapering Dorsal.
Photo courtesy Gary Lee

So has the Robson Guppy truly disappeared from breeder tanks? As a strain defined by earlier standards, possibly. In contribution to current breeding's? Not likely, as all components are still found worldwide in many improved strains. Thus, with effort, could potentially be re-constituted in original form with well-defined breeding's.

NOTE: All photos by author or used with express permission of breeder / photographer.

CONTRIBUTORS: Stephen Elliot, Kettering, England.


FGA, (1961, 1967, 1973) Standards Handbooks, First Edition 1961, Revised 1967, Revised 1973.

FGBS, (1955, 1961) The Guppy Breeders's Standards Handbook, Seventh Edition, Rev. Jan., 1955, Eighth Edition, Rev. Jan., 1961.

Frazer-Brunner, A. (1953) The Guppy, The Aquarist, Reprinted 1953.

Haskins, C.P. & Haskins E. F. (1951) The Inheritance of Certain Color Patterns in Wild Populations of Lebistes reticulatus in Trinidad.

Klee, Albert J., (2003) The Guppy 1859-1967, Finley Aquatic Books.

Madsen, J. M., (1975) Aquarium Fishes In Color, Macmillan Publishing, Co.

Stoye, F. H., (1934) Color Breeding of Guppies, The Aquarium, Vol. III, No. 2, June 1934, pgs 32-33.

The Federation of Northern Aquarium Societies, (1989), A Simple Guide to Identification; Guppy (Fin Shapes).


This years 19th World Guppy Contest (WGC) is being held in Vienna, Austria this coming August 22-28, 2016,  This in followup to last years highly successful 18th WGC held in Tampa, Florida USA, by the Florida Guppy Club.  Held under the auspices of the World Guppy Association, /, WGC contests are traditionally rotated around the world each year.  I have wanted to attend a show hosted by the Austrian Club, one of the oldest in the world, since a teenager.  Now I will attend and have been humbled and honored with an invitation to judge the event.   This show promises attract breeders from around the world.  There is still time to plan a trip if within your means.


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